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Trinidad, Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina, Castro attended an economic conference in Buenos Aries, unsuccessfully proposing a $30 billion U. S. – funded “Marshall plan” for Latin America. After appointing himself president of the National Institute of Agrarian Reform (Institution National De Reforms Agrarian – NAIRA), on 17 May 1959, Castro signed into law the First Agrarian Reform, limiting landholdings to 993 acres (4. 02 km) per owner and forbid further foreign land-ownership. Large land-holdings were broken up and redistributed; an estimated 200,000 peasants received title deeds.

To Castro, his was an important step, that broke the control of the landowning class over Scuba’s agriculture; popular among the working class, it alienated many middle-class supporters. Castro appointed himself president of the National Tourist Industry, introducing unsuccessful measures to encourage African- American tourists to visit, advertising it as a tropical paradise free of racial discrimination. Changes to state wages were implemented; judges and politicians had their pay reduced while low-level civil servants saw theirs raised.

In March 1959, Castro ordered rents for those who paid less than $100 month halved, with measures implemented to increase the Cuban people’s purchasing powers; productivity decreased and the country financial reserves were drained within two years. Although he refused to categorize his regime as socialist and repeatedly denied being a communist, Castro appointed Marxist to senior government and military positions; most notably Chew Guava became Governor of the Central Bank and then Minister of Industries.

Appalled, Air Force commander Pedro Luis Ditz Lana defected to the U. S. Although President Ritual denounced the defection, he publicly expressed concern with the rising influence of Marxism. Angered, Castro announced his resignation as Prime Minister, blaming Ritual for complicating government with his “fevered anti-Communism”. Over 500,000 Castro-supporters surrounded the Presidential Palace demanding Ritual’s resignation, which was duly received. On July 23, Castro resumed his Premiership and appointed the Marxist Coevals Doric;s as the new president.

Castro used radio and television to develop a “dialogue with the people”, posing questions and making provocative statements. His regime remained popular with workers, peasants and students, who constituted the charity of the country population, while opposition came primarily from the middle class; thousands of doctors, engineers and other professionals emigrated to Florida in the U. S. , causing an economic brain drain. Castor’s government cracked down on opponents of his government, and arrested hundreds of counter-revolutionaries.

Castor’s government sanctioned the use of psychological torture, subjecting prisoners to solitary confinement, rough treatment, and threatening behavior. Militant anti-Castro groups, funded by exiles, the Central Intelligence Agency (CA), and Trujillo Dominican overspent, undertook armed attacks and set up guerrilla bases in Scuba’s mountainous regions. This led to a six-year Chambray Rebellion that lasted longer and involved more soldiers than the revolution. The government won with superior numbers and executed those who surrendered.

After conservative editors and journalists expressed hostility towards the government, the pro-Castro printers’ trade union disrupted editorial staff, and in January 1960 the government proclaimed that each newspaper would be obliged to publish a “clarification” written by the printers’ union at the end Of any articles critical of the government; thus began press censorship in Castor’s Cuba. Http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Premiership_of_Fidel_Castro 2) Which of Mayo’s achievements in China became a beacon of hope for young Latin American Revolutionaries in the sass’s?

If Mayo’s achievements in China were the beacon of hope for young Latin American revolutionaries in the 1 9505, the Acacia’s overthrow of Guatemalan Jacob Urbane in 1954 was the most powerful cautionary tale of Rail and Fidel Castor’s generation. After his election in 1 952, Urbane moved to implement radical social and political reforms. A Marxist, though not serially pro-Moscow, Urbane included members of the Guatemalan communist party in his inner circle. By 1 954 the Eisenhower administration had determined that it could no longer countenance Urbane as leader of Guatemala.

With the support of moderate, Catholic, and conservative interests in the government and the army, Washington undermined Arbiter’s hold on power. In June 1954, under pressure from a small band of rebels whose numbers were exaggerated by CIA radio stations, the Guatemalan army collapsed, prompting Urbane to resign. The essential lesson for the Castro and Chew, who was actually in Guatemala at the time of the coup, was hat purging and rebuilding the army would have to be a priority in the first months Of power.

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